Was ist das Goldene Zeitalter?

„Die einzige echte Friedenszeit, die meine Generation in Deutschland erlebt hat, war angebrochen: ein Zeitraum von sechs Jahren, 1924 bis 1929 (…)“, schreibt der Historiker und Publizist Sebastian Haffner (Jahrgang 1907) in seinen Erinnerungen „Geschichte eines Deutschen“: „Es kam Geld ins Land, das Geld behielt seinen Wert, die Geschäfte gingen gut (…) Die letzten zehn Jahre [1914 – 1923] gerieten in Vergessenheit, wie ein böser Traum. (…). Es gab jedes vernünftige Maß von Freiheit, Ruhe, Ordnung, wohlwollendste Liberalität weit und breit, gute Löhne, gutes Essen und ein wenig öffentliche Langeweile“, schwärmt Haffner. Und doch entdeckt er im Rückblick etwas Seltsames.

Sebastian Haffner: „Es zeigte sich, dass eine ganze Generation in Deutschland mit dem Geschenk eines freien Privatlebens nichts anzufangen wusste. (…) Jenseits der Bildungsschicht heißt und hieß die große Gefahr des Lebens in Deutschland immer: Leere und Langeweile. (…) Über den großen Flächen Nord- und Ost-Deutschlands, in seinen farblosen Städten, hinter seinen allzu fleißig, gründlich und pflichtbewusst betriebenen Geschäften und Organisationen droht und drohte immer der Stumpfsinn. Und zugleich der horror vacui und der Wunsch nach ‚Erlösung‘: Erlösung durch Alkohol, durch Aberglauben oder, am besten, durch einen großen, alles überschwemmenden, billigen Massenrausch.“

Eine Nebenbemerkung:
Obwohl Sebastian Haffner seine Erinnerungen vor rund 80 Jahren schrieb, darf man seine wiederholte Nebeneinanderstellung von Verben im Präteritum und Präsens („heißt und hieß“; „droht und drohte“) für die Beschreibung eines für Deutschland typischen kollektiven und provinziell beheimateten Stumpfsinns durchaus auch auf die heutige Gegenwart anwenden. Denn bis heute hat sich an diesem Sachverhalt wenig geändert – mit einer wesentlichen Abweichung: Die deutsche Krankheit, an der die ereignislosen Provinz leidet, scheint sich mehr und mehr auf den ganzen Kontinent auszubreiten.

In den deutschen Großstädten, vor allem aber in Berlin war das Leben anders als in der Provinz: Hier gab es, so Haffner, die besagten „Bildungsschichten“, die ihre Lebensinhalte und Lebensfreuden in Büchern und Musik, in eigenem Denken und dem Bilden einer eigenen „Weltanschauung“ fänden. Dabei will Haffner die Verteter dieser städtischen „Bildungsschichten“ nicht mit den von sich und ihrem Standesdünkel eingenommenen „Bildungsbürgern“ – obwohl auch Haffner zum Bildungsbürgertum gehörte – verwechselt wissen: „Die Schranken zwischen den Klassen waren dünn und brüchig geworden – vielleicht ein segensvolles Nebenereignis der allgemeinen Verarmung. Viele Studenten waren nebenbei Arbeiter – und viele junge Arbeiter waren nebenbei Studenten. Klassendünkel und Stehkragengesinnung waren einfach unmodern geworden. Die Beziehungen zwischen den Geschlechtern waren offener und freier denn je – vielleichte ein segensvolles Nebenergebnis der langen Verwilderung (…) Berlin war damals eine ziemlich internationale Stadt. (…) Wir – ein undefinierbarer Teil der deutschen Jugend, der sich erkannte, wo er sich begegnete – waren nicht nur fremdenfreundlich, sondern fremdenenthusiastisch.

Um zu zeigen, wie weit seit Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts sich die bildungshungrigen, kosmopolitischen Stadtbewohner in Berlin von dem zurückgebliebenen, provinziellen Erlebnishorizont im übrigen Deutschland wegbewegt hatte, genügt nur eine Zitatpassage aus Hans Sahls Erinnerungen an das Berlin der zwanziger Jahre: „Diese Epoche hatte einen eigenen Zungenschlag (…), der zur Voraussetzung hatte, dass man das letzte Stück von Brecht, die letzte Inszenierung von Piscator, Jessner, Reinhardt gesehen, die letzte Kritik von Kerr oder Ihering gelesen, dass man auf dem Laufenden war über die Konzerte von Furtwängler, Toscanini, Klemperer, Kleiber, Bruno Walter, über Tairoffs ‚Entfesseltes Theater‘, den ‚Dybbuk‘ der Habima und Meierholz’ letztes Gastspiel in Deutschland, über die Negertänzerin Josephine Baker und den flüsternden Bariton Jack Smith, über Eisensteins ‚Potemkin‘ und Chaplins ‚Goldrausch‘, über Gershwins ‚Rhapsody in Blue‘, den ‚Zauberberg‘ von Thomas Mann und Hermann Hesses ‚Steppenwolf‘, über das Sechstagerennen und Fritz Kortner als ‚Richard III.‘, über die Bergner als Rosalinde und Albert Wassermann in Sternheims ‚1913‘, über Strawinskys ‚Ödipus Rex‘ und Mies van der Rohes ‚Hochhäuser aus Glas und Stahl‘, über Freud und Einstein und die atonale Musik.“

Auch wenn Sahls Aufzählung der Berliner Hochkultur übermäßig kultiviert und elitär ausgefallen sein mag und wohl nicht repräsentativ für den durchschnittlichen Berufsberliner war – als gelernter Journalist, der unter anderem für den Berliner Börsen Courier schrieb, musste auch ein so geschmacksicherer Zeitgenosse wie Sahl mal auf den Busch klopfen –, so gibt sie einen guten Eindruck für die kosmopolitische Einstellung der gefühlten Weltstadt Berlin. Als intellektuelles Zentrum der Stadt galt dabei das Romanische Café, in direkter Nachbarschaft zur Friedrich Wilhelm Gedächtniskirche, in dem die Arrivierten der Berliner Szene und die ehrgeizigen, aufstrebenden Talente aufeinanderstießen – wobei erstere sich von letzteren bewusst abzusetzen versuchten: Für die namhaften Besucher gab es einen eigenen Raum – das sogenannte „Bassin für Schwimmer“ –, in dem für sie die rund 20 Cafétische, streng nach Berufsgruppen und Kunstsparten getrennt, reserviert waren.

Hans Sahl: „Es gibt einen Malertisch, einen Bildhauertisch, einen Philosophentisch, einen Börsen-Kurier-Tisch, einen Tisch der Kritiker, der Dramatiker, der Essayisten, der Soziologen und der Psychoanalytiker.“ Das Schwimmerbecken war die kommunikative Schnittstelle, in der die „Unbehausten im Geiste“, so nennt Sahl „die Maler, Dichter, Denker“, mit ihren „Nutznießern, die mit den Unbehausten ins Geschäft kommen wollen, die Händler, Makler, Filmverleiher, Buchhändler, Verleger, Impresarios“ zusammenarbeiten und bisweilen auch aneinandergeraten. Denn die „Nutznießer“ dienten als unbarmherzige, von Redaktions-, Premieren-, Dreh- und Vertragsterminen getriebene Schrittmacher, die den Unbehausten „das Buch vom Munde ablesen, es in den Satz geben“ mussten und umgekehrt ihnen die Korrekturfahnen, die Bürstenabzüge, die Probedrucke, den Satzspiegel feierlich zu überbringen hatte. „Dafür dürfen sie bis auf Widerruf an den Tischen der Unbehausten Platz nehmen und ihren Gesprächen lauschen, in denen sie zugleich gepriesen und verflucht werden“, so Sahl weiter.

Alle anderen wurden in den Hauptraum des Romanischen Cafés mit seinen etwa 70 Tischen verwiesen, dem sogenannten „Bassin für Nichtschwimmer“, in dem sich viele verkrachte Existenzen, Adabeis, Groupies, Touristen und Dandys neben den vermeintlich und wirklich Begabten tummelten.

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